Junior Seminar in United States History
Gender in the 20th Century
Finding Primary Sources
What are primary sources?
Primary sources are records or objects that have survived
from the past, such as letters, photographs, diaries, audio
recordings, video recordings, newspaper articles written at
the time of an event, buildings, speeches, scrapbooks, pamphlets,
furniture, tools, household items, clothing, toys...
Websites About Primary Sources
Explainations and examples of primary sources
Websites for Primary Sources
Selected Sites with Primary Source Materials (The Nitty Gritty)
- American Memory Project
Historical Collections for the National Digital Library
From the Library of Congress.
Topics include History, Political Science and Law, Social
Sciences, and many others.
- Women Working, 1800 -1930
"Focuses on women's role in the United States economy
and provides access to digitized historical, manuscript,
and image resources selected from Harvard University's library
and museum collections."
- Documents from the Women's Liberation Movement
"The materials in this on-line archival collection
document various aspects of the Women's Liberation Movement
in the United States, and focus specifically on the radical
origins of this movement during the late 1960s and early
1970s. The items in this on-line collection are scanned
and transcribed from original documents held in Duke's Special
A collection of images from over 7,000 advertisements printed
in U.S. and Canadian newspapers and magazines from 1911
through 1955. Subject areas include: radio, television,
transportation, beauty and hygiene and World War II.
- Internet Archive
Includes texts, audio, moving images, as well as archived web pages. Of note is the
a collection of over 48,000 "ephemeral"
(advertising, educational, industrial, and amateur) films.
Some 2,000 key titles are available here. The collection
currently contains over 10% of the total production of ephemeral
films between 1927 and 1987.
- Making of Modern Michigan
Includes local history materials from communities around
Michigan. Michigan's unique heritage is represented through
photographs, family papers, oral histories, genealogical
materials, and much more.
Online Sources for Newspapers and Journals
York Times 1851-4 years ago (ProQuest Historical Newspapers)
A full text archive of the entire historical run of The
New York Times. Includes every page of every issue from
cover to cover, with full-page and article images in downloadable
PDF. Contains articles, classified ads, comics and cartoons,
photos, maps, graphics, and editorials and commentary.
- Kalamazoo Gazette Historical
>> Full-text coverage of the weekly and daily versions of the Kalamazoo Gazette, 1837-1922.
Note: WMU has other online historical newspapers,
such as the Los Angeles Times, the Christian Science Monitor,
The Chicago Tribune, and the Washington Post. See
WMU's History Indexes and Databases page for more information.
You can only use these resources from Western's campus.
[How to get to Western]
- Readers' Guide Retrospective (1890-1982) <
An index to articles in popular and general interest magazines
published in the United States and Canada. (No full text.)
Full text of about 117 core scholarly journals, many of which go back to the 1800s.
Primary Sources in the Kalamazoo College Library
Use these terms in Ariadne to locate primary sources (search
by subject and keyword):
- Personal narratives
- Audio recordings
Local Repositories of Primary Sources
Finding Secondary Sources
What are secondary sources?
Secondary sources analyze, restate, describe, or explain primary
sources. Secondary sources are generally at least one step
removed from the historical event being described. Examples
of secondary sources include textbooks, biographies, dictionaries,
encyclopedias, and books and articles that interpret or review
See the History Research Guide on Finding Books.
Using Subject Headings
Search by Keyword and look for Subject Headings in individual records.
To modify a search:
- Use words from the Subject Heading in a Keyword search
- Click on the Subject Heading itself
Examples of Subject Headings:
Samples of Background Sources
- American Decades
Ref. E169.12 .A419 1994 v.1-10
- The American years
Ref. E174.5 .G753 2003 v.1-2
- Cold War America, 1946 to 1990
Ref. E741 .G76 2003
- The Columbia chronicles of American life, 1910-1992
Ref. E169.1 .G667 1995
- Encyclopedia of American History
Ref.E174 .E53 2003
- Encyclopedia of contemporary American culture
Ref. E169.12 .E49 2001
- Encyclopedia of Women in American History
Ref. HQ1410 .E53 2002
- Encyclopedia of the United States in the twentieth century
Ref. E740.7 .E53 1996 v.1-5
- The Greenwood guide to American popular culture
Ref. E169.1 .G7555 2002 v.1-4
- Historical dictionary of the 1950s
Ref. E835 .O44 2000
- Historical dictionary of the 1960s
Ref. E841 .H58 1999
- Historical dictionary of the 1970s
Ref. E865 .H57 1999
- The sixties in America
Ref. E841 .S55 1999 v.1-3
- The sixties chronicle
Ref. E841 .S59 2004
- Term paper resource guide to twentieth-century United States history
Ref. E741 .M83 1999
- War and American popular culture : a historical encyclopedia
Ref. E181 .W26 1999
- Encyclopedia of women and gender : sex similarities
and differences and the impact of society on gender
Ref. HQ1115 .E43 2001 v.1-2
- Encyclopedia of women's history in America
Ref. HQ1410 .C85 2000
- Gay histories and cultures : an encyclopedia
Ref. HQ75.13 .G37 2000
- Handbook of American women's history
Ref. HQ1410 .H36 1990
- Men and masculinities : a social, cultural, and historical encyclopedia
Ref. HQ1090.3 .M436 2004 v.1-2
FINDING JOURNAL ARTICLES
See How to Find Journal Articles
What Journals does the Library Own?
- In paper - Check Ariadne
- search on your discipline or subject area, and in Step 2, limit the location to "Periodicals"
- Online - Check Online Journals at K
- to find out what online journals the Library subscribes to
Which index includes the journal I'm looking for?
Find citations to articles (secondary sources) with these indexes.
FULL TEXT DATABASES
Find full text articles (secondary sources) online with these databases.
Types of Periodicals
Scholarly Journals (American Historical Review)
- Authors are scholars or researchers in their fields.
- Authors cite their sources in footnotes, endnotes, and bibliographies.
- Individual issues have little or no advertising.
- Articles must go through a peer-review process.
- Articles usually report original scholarly research.
- Most illustrations are charts, figures, or graphs.
- Authors use the specialized language or jargon of the discipline.
Popular Magazines (Smithsonian)
Don't forget to use bibliographies
contained in reference books, annotated bibliographies, circulating books, and journal articles!
Evaluating Web Sites
Use these points to evaluate the credibility of Websites:
How reliable is the information? Are there editors and fact checkers?
What are the author's qualifications? Is the publisher reputable?
Is the author trying to sway opinion? Is the information free from bias?
Is the publication date indicated? Is the source up to date?
Does the site cover the topic comprehensively, or are there information gaps?
Sites that provide guidance on evaluating Websites:
Citing Your Sources in the Chicago Style
Examples of Citations in the Chicago Style:
|Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. Disorderly
Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America.
||New York: A.A. Knopf, 1985.
|Edwards, Justin D. "Henry James's
'Alien' New York: Gender and Race in the
||American Scene." American Studies
International 36, no. 1 (1998): 66-80.
Chapter in a Book:
| Schlereth, Thomas J. "Country Stores,
County Fairs, and Mail-Order Catalogues:
||Consumption in Rural America." In
Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display
||of Goods in America, 1880-1920
edited by Simon J. Bronner, 251-300.
|| New York: Norton, 1989.
Chicago Manual of Style
14th ed. Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Reference, Z253 .U69 2003.
From the University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center.
See the The Chicago Manual of Style FAQ
web site for citing electronic
resources in the Chicago Style.
See: How to Cite Sources
See also Citing Sources
for help in citing print and electronic resources
in various bibliographic styles (MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.)